• Visible (facial expression) and audible manifestation (change in pitch) of pt's emotional response to external and internal events

  • Observed by the clinician (sign)


  • Pt's subjective assessment of their emotions when asked how they feel

  • Reported by pt (symptom)

Is affect congruent with mood?


  • Gaining knowledge and understanding via thinking and experiencing

Attention and concentration

  • Ability of an individual to focus and sustain their thoughts on specific things

    • Spell something backward, count in twos


  • Sensory (immediate) memory

    • Repeat a set of numbers

  • Short-term memory

      • Repeat set of numbers 5mins later

  • Long-term memory

    • Important life events (marriage date)

  • Amnesia - loss of memory

  • Retrograde amnesia - memories lost prior to event

  • Anterograde amnesia - memories lost after to event

  • Global amnesia - memories lost prior to AND after event

  • Confabulation - lapses of memory filled in with fabricated events (deception is not intended)


  • Calculations appropriate for pt's level of education

    • Continuously subtract 7 starting from 100


  • Fluency, content, repetition, reading/writing, comprehension of written/oral

Fund of knowledge

  • Amount of general information stored in long-term memory (↑s with education)

    • Name state capital

Abstract reasoning

  • Analyze information and make connections between different pieces of data

    • Find similarities between objects

Executive function

  • Ability to plan and execute complex tasks

For Rotations

HX Taking

Mental Status Exam